Malaya takes place on the upper Euphrates basin of the Eastern Anatolia Region and on the end of ruined area of Adiyaman, Moush, Van and Malatya. Its environment is surrounded by Elazigh and Diyarbakir in the East, Adiyaman in the South, Kahraman Marash in the West and Sivas and Erzincan in the North. Area of the Town territory is 12.313 km2. and situated between the Northern altitudes of 3.554’ and 3.903’, the Eastren longitudes of 3.845′ and 3.908 meters’. Malatya opens to Mediterranean by Sultans water and Surgu creek and Middle Anatolia by Tohma valley and to Eastren Anatolia by Euphrates Valley and also forms a transitional area between regions.
On this account, aged calcareous, conglomerates and volcanic ashes of tertiary (III. Period) in area of the Province are very widespread. Plain of Malatya is a wide graben area of surrounded by its altitudes, mountain ridges over 1.500 mtrs and its plateaus are clad by green and white marls in its nothern of this graben area between its altitude of 915 and 950 mtrs.
Calcareous of northern lake leaning locates on these formations. Anyhow, other side of the province is clad by Andezic Volcanoes lying down in the direction to Northwestern in the Northeastern of the plain. Southern of graben area has been covered by eosins calcareous crashes. This structure leaning to the North which has been stratified by mica-schist’s and transformed to marbleize calcareous on the southern side of the downtown. Area has been formed by alluviums carried, in IV. time, by waterfowls between Malatya mountains and Euphrates valley, old gabrobe granitites ranging III. time under alluviums. Neogen calcareous of III. Time has covered in the southwestern and western side of the province. Horizontal stratums tricked consisting of 5060 meters at the same aged conglomerates have inserted valleys of Tohma, Soltansuyu and Kuruchay.
Almost all kinds of great soil are encountered in Malatya. Most of them are perpendicular slopes, and pricipals and characteristics of territories with such these problems due to erosion are able to be compiled.
In the provincial area, rich terra-rossas of the forest in organic material have covered different and dark – coloured lime stones. These mature terrains are thick stratums on the slight altituded grounds, as well as thin layers on the more altituded grounds. These terrains are changable between altitudes of 1000 – 2000 meters and average of annual precipitation is 7800mm /m2 in these terrains.
Even though precipitation is enough, limestone which is resistant to the separation and lies down, in parallel, on the superficies, and prevents shuts out terrain to be formed reef and shallow.
In the western phase of mountains of Malatya, soils without calcic of forest has been formed on the metamorphosis sequences with different shale and under the forest clad. There is not any free lime in composition of these mature soils. The soils are in half mature condition in more sloping regions. There are not rather layers except upper soil came into existence by decomposition and a deposit of organic components. Average of annual precipitation is over 600mm/m2 in the spreading area of these soils. Oak from leafy trees, dwarfish junipers or redpines constitute this natural couth, tracts of volcanic formation in the province are, in patches, clad by lime free terra-Rosa. These ripe tracts are fairly deep in the regions in which erosion does not violently occur. Average of annual precipitation is about 400mm/m2 in the spreading area. Even though there is not any natural plant cover in the area, soil group of the most important soils is alluvium in point of area. Plain of Malatya and esplanades.. These fresh tracts have been conveyed by the streams and formed of hoarded materials. Peak plateaus from conglomerated materials which have been dragged are being generally formed by aged lime stones. Occasionally outer lavas are attracted attention. In this respect, all alluvial soils are calcareous. Any specific climate is not needed for formation of these fresh soils. Agriculture of dry and wet fields where these territories that grains, industrial plants, fruits and vegetables are grown.
In the country, there are colluvial soils on areas having few tendencies which are formed of the conglomerated materials conveyed by the gravitation and small streams and oozes. Agriculture has been carried out in these territories where layering was unseen as it is available in alluvial soils. Particularly agricultural products and fruits are foremost grown in these terraces.
In the country, there are terra-Rosa, hydromorphoric soils of the Mediterranean in a scanty area out from these soil groups. Moreover, naked Rockies, sandiness of riverbank overflow drains of river are also seemable.
TERRESTRIAL SHAPES :
Ranges of the Tauruses during the curling of Alps, the great part of the country area which had taken shape in the third geologic period has covered the entire region. These mountains which have enumerated more systematic ranges in the south are a parted by Tohma stream or many numbered river and creeks joining to the Euphrates.
Mountains in Malatya :
The Southeastern Tauruses have been divided to various ranges after gorge of Kapidere located in the north of Gaziantep Golbashi. The mountains forming southern range of mountain mass and cramming the plain of Malatya by lying down to Besni, Adiyaman and Kahta are called Malatya Mountains. Mountains of Malatya which are high and much wavy have been aparted by the streams coming down from various directions. In this respect, there are not any important flatnesses on Malatya Mountains. These mountains which have, both time to time widening and narrowing, started to form systematic lines on the east of Doghanshehir plain is lying as long as to Ephrates Valley. The most important peaks on Malatya Mountains are Korudagh, 2100 mtrs of altitude from the west to the east, Karakaya Hill with 2.424 meters of altitude, Becbel Hill with 2.006mtrs of altitude, Beydaghi with 2.544 meters of altitude, Kelle Hill with 2.150 meters of altitude, Gayrik Hill with 2.306 meters of Altitude.
Nourhaq Mountains :
Nourhaq Mountains which are entering into the western side of Sultans (Soultan waters) valley and territory of Kahramanmarash provincial area have formed range of the Tauruses opening to the north. As a parallel with the valley these mountains which are lying down in Northeastern direction have been divided by Tohma valley. At the same time, it surrounds Tohma river basin by lying down to west and northeastren directions. The most important peaks on the Nourhaq Mountains are those ; Derbent daghi with 2.428 m., Kepez daghi with 2.140 m. and Kushkaya Hill with 1.922 m., Akçadagh with 2.013 m.,between Malatya Plain, Tohma Valley, Darende and Doghanshehir are ally ranges of Nourhaq Mountains are different in point of ground shapes. These mountains which have been forming a ground shape at 500 meters of altitude with many mountains according to Tohma, Sultans waters valleys with the plains of Doghanshehir and Malatya are generally volcanic origin. These rivers and creeks which have resourced from these mountains, by streaming towards to Soultansuyu, form deep valleys. The altitude is mostly lower than 2000 mts.
Akchababa Mountains :
These mountains which have taken place between Tohma Valley and Kuruchay (Dry Creek) are in situation of ranges of Nourhaq Mountains that are sidling up to the Northeast. Akchababa Mountains which are not much high, by dispersing in the notheastren direction have spreaded a liarge area. These mountains which are generally naked have peaks such as Kuyucakbasi Hill with 1.734 m. of altitude, Akcababa Hill with 1.164 m. of altitude, Ahbaba Hill with 1.857 m. of altitude and the Mount Lailaq with 2.052 m. of altitude from the southwestern to the Northeastern.
Yama Mountain :
The Great large part of the Mount Yama which is in Sivas Provincial area, by opening to the south and the southeastern, entirely involves the north of Malatya. The Yama Mount and its ranges which, ranging to valley of Kurucay in the west, valley of Euphrates river in the southeastern are generally volcanic state. Its altitude is over 1.500 mt. These mountains have formed large, a mass and a high bulg. This part, except the important peaks is generally in appearance with a Plateau. The most important peaks of this range are Doyukan Hill with 1516 m. of altitude in the west of Arguvan, Hasbeg Hill with 2.310 m. of altitude in the east of Kozdere (Koz creek), and Gol Daghi (the Mount Gol) with 2.402 m. of altitude. Furthermore, there are Venk and Izollu mountains in the east, Shaq Shaq mountain between Izollu and Puturge, Qobba and Akdoghan mountains in Puturge, Changall, Aynaca and Ereghli mountains between Arguvan and Arapgir Demirli, Kizilhisar and Zorbakhan mountains in Hekimhan area, Hezanli, Ademkiran, Alidede, Heyik, Kuduz and Beynamaz mountains, Oghle Rocks, Kartal Rocks, The Mount Karatash, Keklicek and Akseki Mountains as well as Kurugol Mountains and Hills.
Plateaus spreads a very large area in country of Malatya. The mountains which are generally calcite have been abraded and quickly converted to midst and high plateaus as well. Owing to fact that volcanic movements, blown lavas have caused large plains to appear by flatting the waveform.
Malatya Mountains are plateaus. Herein, there are plateaus ranged side by side and down to down at various altitudes in the northern and western slopes due to mountains form regular ranges. These plateaus are rich in point of water resources.
Western Plateaues :
Western Plateaus at lower altitude as to southern plateaus, its altitudes do not raise up over 1500 m. the mountains in the environs in masses not forming regular ranges. The plateaus aparted by Tohma river and its deltas and lined in rows among the fairly deep valleys are generally dry and naked. These plateaus have been lined in ranges by loosing altitude from Aygormez and Kepez mountains to Tohma Valley and from Akcababa mountains to Tohma and Kurucay Valleys.
Northern Plateaues :
Northern Plateaues are the most important plateaues of Malatya. The high plains which are lined in rows on the skirts of Yama Mountain have been also called Yama Plateaus forward to Valley of Euphrates. Parts of Northern Plateaus next to borders of Sivas are larger and flat. Therefore, plateaus are herein, ranked in smaller and on the steps of various altitudes, and in terraced nature.
Valleys and Plains :
Importance of valleys in provincial area of Malatya is great. All the valleys in the province open to main valley of Euphrates. Especially Tohma Valley of these mentioned ones make a large net. The valley plains widen as approaching to the valley of Euphrates and so the important plains of the province appear. A great part of these valleys has remained beneath of Karakaya Dam-Lake of today. Other valleys form small and great plains and stables on the altitude steps by widening time to time.
PARTICULAR PLAINS :
Malatya Plain, Plain of Doghanehir, Izollu Plain, Migdi Plainı, Surgu Plain, Akcadagh Plain, Yazihan Plain, Mandara Plain, Chapli Plain, District Plain and Erkenek Plains.
Malatya Plain :
Tohma includes a very large area between Sultansuyu and Fırat valleys. This large plain whose average altitude is 900 mtrs has been surrounded by mountains with plateaus mounting by ranks and going up to 1500 mtrs. Acre of Plain reaches up to 830 km2. Plain of Malatya has lied down toward west-eastern direction is essentially a graben area. It has formed in result of alluviums conveyed by the streams. The thickness of this fresh filling materials conveyed by the streams may change between 50 and 100 meters. The thickness of the layer of filling gets thinner by approaching to the edge of the plain.
Plain is generally flat. However, the depth in valleys small oozes and creeks streaming down reaches up to 60-100 mtrs. A soft wavy structure should have been formed. Plain of Malatya is clad by a thick stratum and fertile and fruitful. ıt des not reserve water and dry soon due to it is very permeable. Therefore, the irrigation is extremely important in agricultural production. Having profit to the dams of Medik, Soultansuyu and Beylerderesi built on Tohma river in 1975, some areas have been opened to be irrigated.
Dogansehir Plain :
All large and small plains which have ranged nearby sultans valley opening to in the south of Tohma valley are called Doghanshehir plain. The Plain started narrowing to Doghanshehir after Sucati. The altitude in the downtown of Doghanshehir is 1250 mtrs.. Sultansuyu and its branches stream in the bottom not much deeper than the plains.
Large and small deltas lying down towards Komurhan gorge which are called Izollu plains that Euphrates River has formed a narrow and a deep corridor on the east of Malatya plain. These are, by incipiently Malatya Mountains lying to the direction of Northeastern and opening to Karakaya Dam Lake, in position of railed deltas.
Erhac Duzu, Arga and Oren Fields:
These plains in the position of deltas of Malatya plain towards to the west are, in patches, wavy plains. Altitudes of these plains have filled the triangle shape between Sultansuyu valley and Tohman Valley according to Malatya plain.
Mandira (Dairy), Tafta and Milli Fields :
Mandira plain (Mandira duzu) in half plain areaes is between Sultan (Waters)suyu and beylerderesi, others are on the eats of Bylerderesi. Lengthening these areas in the position of the southern prolongations of Malatya plain are much higher and wavier.
Migdi Duzu (Plateau of Migdi) :
Vanishing point has located between Valleys of Ayvali, Tohma and Hacilar Tohma. Acre of the plain has covered a large area is 50 km2. Middle Parts of Plain which are flat and its altitude increases towards to edges and a wavy shape appears. Valley floor which has been widened in result of soil full with the alluviums that the streams conveyed is in the fertile condition. Green clad is consisted only creek banks and under the poplur and willow trees.
It is one of the most important Valleys of Turkey. Euphrates Valley which is very deep steep lines on by drawing sharp cones. The valley which has become steepness keeps on its characteristics as long as it connects with Valley of Soghutlu Creek. The stream, time to time, forms islets by straying and separating branches while it has been streaming in a very large bed. The structure suddenly changes, after Goldagi and Sarichichek valleys. Large valleys appear towards to Euphrates Valley. Those are valleys of Tohma and Kuruchay. This structure of Euphrates River takes as long asto the eastren tip of mountains of Malatya. The Valley narrows here again. It converts to a gorge of 100 kms. After this gorge, called Komurhan Boghazi the valley goes out the provincial terraces.
Tohma Valley :
Tohma Valley which starts in the territory of Sivas as in two branches forms a wide valley towards to valley of Euphrates. Those branches began to enlarge near Darende. They connect to each other on the east of district. A large plain occurs on the place of connection of valleys. After this high plain, called Mighdi duzu, the valley narrows a little and then takes a long towards to direction of the east. Then, it connects with Soultansuyu valley coming from the south and in sudden enlarges then opens to the Euprates Valley. Valleys of Malatya and Doghanshehir which are from the most important plains get lined up on the Valley floor which enlarges.
Erhaç plain and Yazihan plain line up:
Kurucay Valley (of Dry Creek) :
The valley which starts on the western skirts of Yama Mountain is not much deep on the starting sections. There are not any frequent narrow and steep gorges in Tohma Valley. The particular reasons of this event are abrasively rounded terrestrial shapes. Moreover, stream basin which has been overflowing the valley is small and the water flow is less. Kuruchay (Dry Creek) gets less in middle section. Then, its bottom enlarges and connects with valleys of Tohma and Euphrates. There are not any valleys except Chapitli flatness and Yazihan plain in valley of Kuruchay.
Chapitli Fields :
The plain which has covered Hasanchalabi called, Chapitli field in Kuruchay Valley. from the depths of Akgedik height of this high plain lining towards to Hasanchalabi is beyond 20 kms. Its widths arrives at 10 kms. The plain generally flat as well as it is softly wavy in somewhere.
Yazihan Duzu :
This plain takes place on the point of that Tohma and Kuruchay valleys open to Euprates. ıt strays from Malatya plain with Tohma creek. all the area remaining in the north of Tohma creek and covering valley floor of Kuruchay, called Yazihan flatness. Yazihan flatness which remains at higher location according to Malatya plain is dry and naked due to droughty of its water sources. Tohma waters remain deeper according to surface of plain. as to Kuruchay , it dries in summer months.
PARTICULAR STREAMS :
Particular streams of our city; that are Sogut creek lies about 17.5 kms, Morhamam creek is about 22.5kms, Kurucay ( Dry Creek) is about 67 kms. Tohma Creek 52.5 km., Sultansuyu (Waters of Sultan) is about 21.5 km., Surgu waters is about 30 km., Beylerderesi (Brook of Beyler) is 38 kms, Mamihan Creek is 10 kms, and Shiro Creek is 37 kms,too.
Soghutlu Creek which starts from the Southern slopes of Goldaghi (The Mount, Goldaghi) is not rather long. Initially it lies towards to the South, then to southeastern and opens to Euphrateriver. The valley which has, time to time, widened and forms some deltas even if they are not much great, however they are very important in agriculture. Particulars of those fields are of District and Arguvan. Diştrik field is called for the delta from the valleys of Soghutlu to the Valley of Mutmur County is a small plain. The plain whose length and width arrive to 17.5 kms is wavy and gravelly.
Valley of Soghutlu creek widens near Arguvan, herein, the plain which lies down is called as” Arguvan Field”.
This valley which forms beginning section of Goksu valley has started on the southern slopes of Karakaya Hill, after it lines in the same direction for 20-30 kms. By curly lining to the west, then goes out to southern and southeastern sides of the city. A valley passes by territory of Adiyaman opens to Euphrates River. Surgu plain which takes place in the valley is vey important for provincial agriculture.
Surgu Plain :
Surgu Plain is a high plain on the southwestern head of Malatya graben area. The soils full with alluviums conveyed by the streams in the valley enlarging is very fertile. The plain is irrigated by Surgu Dam-lake built on the Surgu. The winters are very fierce due to it remains higher than Malatya plain.
Malatya Province locates on the Euphrates basin. Provincial territories covering rather large areas are mostly rich of surface water sources and the upper section of the basin .
Euphrates River Basin :
It is the largest basin of Turkey. Reservoir area of the basin is about 127.000 km2 whose annual water capacity over 28 billion m3. There a plain area of approx. 4.900.000 in the euphrates basin. The most important of streams which take place in 1.700.000 acres of this section are Tohma creek, Kuruchay, Euphrates River and Surgu Creek.
Euphrates River :
The river which has come out of Keban Dam-lake streams from Southwestern to Southeastren side by lining a large bow. The Euphrates River which streams by taking initially Kuruchay and latterly Tohma water, time to time, straying to branches has formed some islets. This area on our day has remained under the Karakaya Dam-lake. The Euphrates River which has entered to the deepest and the longest gorge of the Eastern Anatolia, Komurhan in environs of Komurhan and maintained to stream after the gorge it formed the frontiers of Malatya- Diyarbakir. Karakaya Dam-lake was built near Chungush district of Diyarbakir.
Tohma which is a great stream has formed eastern frontier of Malatya after Euphrates river. it consist of two branches. the longest of them is Ayvali, Tohma Creek from Uzunyayla (The longest Plateaues) Ayvali, Tohma Creek, Tohma of Hacilar emanates on Tahtalı Mountains. These two branches has entered into the frontier of Malatya connects on Mighdi passes by narrow and long gorge of Shoghul then, joins to Euphrates by passing through plain of Malatya. Medik Dam-lake has been built on the point which about Tohma water has finished. Khalavun creek and Epreme Creek in the north, Dipsiz Creek, Soultansuyu, Beylerderesi Khorata, and Orduzu Creek are streaming in the south, while Tohma water has been streaming through plain of Malatya. Those Waters which are playing an important role on the irrigating plains of Sultansuyu, Doğanşehir and Malatya.
Kurucay (Dry Creek) :
After Kuruchay which has emanated from the west of Yama mount and passes through Hasançelebi, Hekimhan and Fethiye joins to Euphrates River forwarding to Eghribuk. ıt is not able to be much profited by this water due to its water dries in summer months.
Creek of Surgu :
This creek has been collecting the waters of Surgu area on the south western edge of the province emanates on the western slopes of Karakaya hill in Malatya areas. Surgu Creek is an important branch of Goksu. The Creek which has been streaming as long as to Kapidere in the western direction after Surgu town and then turns toward to the South then, connects with Goksu and is named as Goksu has connected with Euphrates by entering to Adiyaman in the Eastern direction. Surgu Dam which was built on Surgu Creek irrigates a large area. Malatya has much number of these small or large creeks and rivers have been directly or indirectly joining to Euphrates except these important streams of Malatya. Those are Eghni, Mirjan, Goksu, Aksu, Shiro, Berenge, Soghutluchay, Sazdere, Shotikcreek, Kozluk Creek, Yenice Creek, Setrek Creek, Arapgir Creek, Davulga, Cevizliwater.
There are four dams called Surgu, Medik, Polat and Sultana Water in our province. Dams of Polat and Sultans Water are for purpose with irrigation. Medik dam is for purpose with irrigation and electricity production and surgu dam is for purpose with irrigation and protection against to overflowing.
There is not any natural lake in Malatya. There are small lakes in which are the reservoirs that waters streaming down from only the high mountains and collects and the waters appear have formed lakes at the low leveled ranks of Plateau. There are small lakes for purpose with agricultural irrigation. except them such as; lake of Orduzu irrigation, irrigation reservoir of Zorbali Khan Creek and the 2nd irrigation reservoir Isakoy irrigating reservoir in downtown. an irrigation reservoir in Arguvan and one in Darende.
Dam Lake of Karakaya :
There are 42 reservoirs in Downtown of Malatya, 15 reservoirs in district of Puturge, 2 reservoirs in district in Akchadagh, 6 reservoirs in Arguvan, 2 reservoirs in Arapkir and totaly there are 67 villages reservoir lakes. The Dam-lake covers area of 150.875.583 m2.
367.253 acres (30%) of the provincial area has been covered by flora and forestry, 125.156 acres (10%) of the area are occupied by creeks and grassland.